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Mandarin - Citrus
The mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata), also known as the mandarin or mandarine, is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges, usually eaten plain or in fruit salads. Its flesh is one of the least acidic of citrus fruits, sweet and delicately scented, but dotted with many seeds. There are different names for mandarin, they all refer to the titles worn by the nobleman of the Chinese Empire, the mandarins. Legends claim that the fruit was named mandarin because the citrus fruit was the same color as their officer's dress or because it could recall the shape of their majestic face. One of the early varieties are Japanese satsuma. But the high season mandarins are today represented by the Mediterranean varieties, among which are the famous Nadorcott and the Asian Ponkan, very appreciated in India and Brazil. It should also be noted that the production of this fruit is moving from south to north, as evidenced by the decreases in South American and South African yields. On the world market, mandarins are gradually being replaced by clementines. Recall that the clementine comes from a hybridization between a tangerine and a sweet orange, and that it owes its success to its tangier taste and its absence of seeds. The clementine comes from North Africa where it was discovered by Father Clément in an Algerian orchard, shortly after the introduction of the mandarin. Clementine takes its name from its discoverer. World production of mandarins and clementines is over 24 million tons. The main producers are China with 11.39 million tons, followed by Spain with 2.5 million tons, Brazil with 2 million tons and Japan which produces 1.1 million tons. In France national production, the majority of which comes from Corsica, is estimated at forty thousand tons.